January 5, 1939: Not yet ready to unleash his plans for Poland, Hitler none-the-less tells Polish Foreign Minister that "Danzig (Poland) is German, will always remain German, and will sooner or later become part of Germany."
January 21, 1939: Hitler tells Czech foreign minister Chvalkovsky, that "Germany's moderation," saved them in the past. But if they didn't "want to be annihilated", they would have to leave the league of nations, reduce their military, accept German direction of their foreign policy, make specific trade concessions, and dismiss all journalist and officials not friendly to German policy.
January 24, 1939: Goring formally appoints Heydrich as head of Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration.
January 25, 1939: Memorandum summarizes past year of German Policy towards the Jews; Emigration of all Jews is the major goal.
January 30, 1939: Hitler, in his anniversary speech in Berlin, talks about the event of war, " The result will not be the Bolshevization of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe." Hitler also speaks in warm terms about its friendship with Poland.
March 6, 1939: Bowing to separatist, as well as Hitler's unbearable pressure, President Hacha of Czechoslovakia dismisses the autonomous Ruthenian government.
March 7, 1939: Hitler hands Ruthenia over to Hungary. Its independence lasts 24 hours.
March 9, 1939: As with Ruthenia on March 6, Czechoslovakian President Haha now dismisses the autonomous Slovakia government.
March 10, 1939: After a series of economic negotiations between Germany and Russia, Stalin addresses the 18th Party Congress, conceding points to Germany over Britain and the rest of the west. Says he wants to pursue economic relations with all countries and not be pushed into military action.
March 11, 1939: To preserve internal peace, President Hacha of Czechoslovakia declares marshal law. Hitler drafts secret order calling on Czechs to submit to military occupation without resistance.
March 13, 1939: In a hastily arranged meeting in Berlin with recently deposed Premier Monsignor Tiso of Czechoslovakia, Hitler claims that, "Czechoslovakia owed it only to Germany that she had not been mutilated further. Point is that if Hitler can show that Slovakia wants to be independent, then he has just cause for applying pressure on the Czechoslovakian government to give in.
March 14, 1939: Ultimatum day, German troops would occupy Slovakia if their government didn't declare independence. The Slovak government concedes. Prime Minister Chamberlain of Britain withdraws claim of Czech protectorate as a result.
March 15, 1939: Bohemia and Moravia become a German Protectorate. Slovakia declares its independence. Hitler sends in troops for independent Slovakia's "protection" and Nazi's occupy Czechoslovakia. 56,000 more Jews come under the Nazi reign. Hitler extends grip one more time without firing a shot. Britain sees this as a relaxation of European tension. France accuses Germany of breaking the Munich Agreement and Franco-German pact. The French protest is ignored. Hitler enters Prague.
March 16, 1939: Hitler takes Slovakia under his protection.
March 17, 1939: Chamberlain awakens to Parliament's and the presses' violent reaction to Germany's Czechoslovakia coup. Chamberlain finally realizes his own political future is at risk. He apologizes to Britain for "the very restrained and cautious" stance so far.
March 18, 1939: Soviet Foreign Minister, Litvinov proposes (for the second time in a year), that Poland, Russia, Britain, Rumania, Turkey, France and Britain join together to form a pact to stop Hitler. Chamberlain, probably due to distrust of Russia, found this action to be premature.
March 21, 1939: Britain's Prime Minister Chamberlain proposes to France that the two countries, Germany, and Poland form a mutual support pact. Hitler increases pressure on Poland, demanding land rights so that it can pursue industrial interests in Danzig.
March 22, 1939: Hitler wrestles Memel form Lithuania. Another bloodless conquest.
March 23, 1939: Hitler signs "Treaty of Protection" in Prague. He calls for German control of Czech economy.
March 25, 1939: Poland mobilizes troops around Danzig.
March 26, 1939: German minister Ribbentrop tells its Polish Ambassador, Lipski, that ‘any violation of Danzig territory by Polish troops would be regarded as aggression against the Reich.'
March 28, 1939: Polish Foreign Minister, Beck, tells German Ambassador that ‘any attempt by Germany against Danzig, ‘ would be regarded as grounds for war.
March 30, 1939: Polish Foreign Minister Beck is presented an Anglo-French proposal for mutual assistance in case of German aggression.
March 31, 1939: Chamberlain addresses Parliament, declaring support of Poland with military assistance in case any action was threatened by Germany. He speaks for France as well.
April 1, 1939: In such a rage over Britain's change in policy, Hitler cancels his radio speech.
April 6, 1939: Poland asks Britain to transform its words of guarantee into a temporary pact of mutual assistance.
April 7, 1939: Mussolini sends troops into Albania. His second conquested country after Ethiopia. This gives him access to Yugoslavia and Greece.
, 1939: Hitler introduces "Case White" under the upmost secrecy. GOAL: To destroy Polish military and to antagonize the west. "Case White" called for a surprise attack. September 1 would be the date.
April 13, 1939: Britain and France guarantee their support to Greece and Romania.
April 15, 1939: German Foreign minister Ribbentrop holds talks with Mussolini to predict time table of two or three years for "a general conflict." Goering believes they are now ready. Roosevelt, (upon visiting Rome and Germany) sends telegrams to Hitler and Mussolini appealing for constraint. Roosevelt claims that 31 countries support his appeal.
April 16, 1939: Sensing opportunities with the Soviet Union, Mussolini welcomes the notion of a pact of solidarity with that country and Germany. On same day Soviet Foreign minister proposes pact of mutual assistance between Soviet Union, Britain, and France. London drags its feet with a reply.
April 17, 1939: Hitler polls many countries including Belgium, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Norway and Luxembourg as to whether they concur with Roosevelt's claim of solidarity by asking two questions: Did they feel threatened by Germany? Had they authorized Roosevelt to make his proposal? They all answer negative.
April 28, 1939: Hitler uses his polling of European nations as leverage. In a two hour speech to the Reichstag, but broadcast for the world to hear, Hitler responds to Roosevelt's pleas by claiming that all those countries are friends of Germany. Leaving out Poland'sv name Hitler feigns injustice and denounces the Anglo-German Naval Treaty of 1935. Defends himself as a pacifist in the Polish lying game against Germany. Tells Roosevelt that he'll give his assurance of peace to all the countries he had listed, and then justifies his expansionist actions, comparing it to the growth of America. The Germans remained fooled, but the rest of the world catches on to Hitler's rhetoric. HITLER'S LAST PEACETIME PUBLIC SPEECH.
May 1939: RAVENSBRUCK, WOMAN'S CONCENTRATION CAMP ESTABLISHED.
May 3, 1939: Budapest "Jewish Law" prohibits any Hungarian Jew from becoming a judge, a lawyer a schoolteacher or a member of the Hungarian parliament.
May 3, 1939: In a sudden shift, Vyacheslav Molitov, Stalin's closest advisor, replaces Litvinov as Russian Foreign Commissar. Seen as a way to assure the implementation of Stalin's policies. Litvinov's policies were bringing the USSR closer to war with Germany.
May 4, 1939: Winston Churchill gives a speech complaining that the Russian offer of a mutual assistance pact was still not accepted by Britain.
May 8, 1939: Britain finally replies to Soviet's April 16th request for military alliance. Almost an all out rejection.
May 17, 1939: Britain fixes an upper limit of 75,000 for the number of Jews to be admitted to Jerusalem over the next 5 years.
May 19, 1939: Churchill tells, Lloyd George and House of Commons, "without an Eastern Front, there can be no satisfactory defense in the West. And without Russia there can be no effective Eastern front."
May 20, 1939: Soviet's Molotov resumes economic negotiations with Germany.
May 22, 1939: PACT OF STEEL: Mussolini whole-heartedly commits Italy to the German cause. "The Pact of Steel" between the two countries was signed at the Reich Chancellery in Berlin.
May 23, 1939: Hitler tells full gathering of 14 officers that the shedding of blood was inevitable. At this secret meeting he tells why he must attack Poland, and Britain and France if necessary. German's economic problems would only be solved by Lenesraum, the expansion of German living space. Hitler also hints that non-German territories would also be a great source of cheap labor. Poland is first military target, and then Germany will meet all else that follows from this action. Secrecy is the operative word.
May 24, 1939: Confidential summary to Hitler from General Thomas - Army: 51 divisions. Navy: 2 battleships, 4 heavy cruisers, 17 destroyers, one aircraft carrier 47 submarines. Luftwaffe: 21 squadrons, 260,000 men,
May 27, 1939: After great pressure over his past policy of pacifism, Chamberlain finally resumes negotiations with Russia.
May 29, 1939: The Leisel, carrying ‘illegal' refugees is allowed to land in Jerusalem.
May 30, 1939: Molotov, in the Supreme Council of the USSR, says that if Britain isn't ready for meeting Russia's needs, then Germany is. With his Polish invasion plans, Hitler had to solve the issue of Russian alliance.
June 14, 1939: British send a second tiered diplomate, William Strange, to negotiate with the USSR. The Soviet's and Stalin's distrust of the British grows.
June 15, 1939: Secret directive issued to the German High Command; deployment for "Operation White" (invasion of Poland) would be put into operation on August 20.
June 22, 1939: General Keital submits to Hitler a "preliminary timetable for Operation White," (invasion of Poland.)
June 23, 1939: Goering leads meeting of Reich Defense Council. Tells them to prepare for total war. Hitler plans to conscript seven million soldiers. Work is to be given to prisoners and inmates of prisons and concentration camps.
July 6, 1939: German ambassador in Warsaw notes to Ribbentrop that Poland has the resolve to fight.
July 22, 1939: Eichman's Central Office for Emigration, (of Jews) in Prague, officially opens.
July 23, 1939: Britain and France finally agree to Russia's proposal that military talks be held at once.
July 30, 1939: In a private letter Neville Chamberlain states Germany's jealousy of the Jews' superior cleverness and states: "No doubt Jews aren't a lovable people; I don't care about them myself; but that is not sufficient to explain the Pogrom."
August 5, 1939: After much wrangling in the issues of whether to negotiate both a military and political Anglo-Russian pact, Britain finally sends its representatives to Moscow. However, instead of taking a plane (a one day trip) they send the representatives on a boat. (6 days.) Hitler beats the British to the punch. They already begin to negotiate.
August 11, 1939: True to his goal of Lebenstraum (expanded living space) for Germans, Hitler comments that "Everything I do is directed against Russia." German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop confers with Italian Foreign Minister, Ciano, about the spoils of war. Ciano is shocked as to the extent of the war plans that he hears about.
August 12, 1939: Hitler reiterates his belief that Britain and France do not have the stomach to fight. Hitler informs Italian Foreign Minister Ciano about his plans to invade Poland (within the next few weeks.) Russia informs Hitler that they are sending their negotiator.
August 13, 1939: After spending two days with Hitler, hearing about his war plans, Mussolini's nephew, Foreign Minister Ciano, returns to Italy and comments that he is "completely disgusted with the Germans, with their leader, with their way of doing things, They have betrayed us and lied to us. Now they are dragging us ..." (sic) into war.
August 14, 1939: Hitler sends communique to Moscow. ". . .Being that there is no real conflict of interest. . ." he is ready to make a pact. At a military conference in Obersalberg, Hitler lectures his commanders in chief on his plans for war. He does not believe Britain or France will risk war.
August 15, 1939; Germany prepares for war. He cancels the annual Nuremberg "Rally of Peace", calls up 250,000 troops to preparedness, moves Army headquarters to Zossen, two more battleships are launched. German and Russian negotiations for a mutual non-aggression pact begin. Soviet Molotov leverages off of Germany's eagerness.
August 18, 1939: German-Soviet talks continue. Molotov keeps Germany at Russia's heels.
August 19, 1939: 21 German submarines set sail into the Atlantic and around Britain only after Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov hands German Ambassador Schulengburg a draft of the non-aggression pact. Russian did not believe that Britain would participate in case of war.
August 20, 1939: Hitler sends a personal message to Stalin, agreeing in principal to the Russian's draft of the non-aggression pact. (Hitler's secret plan to invade Poland was only ten days away.) At the same time, in Anglo-Polish peace efforts, Poland refuses to cooperate in allowing Russian troops to meet the Germans on its soil if need be. Britain and France let peace talks flounder.
August 21, 1939:. France, unaware of Soviet-German dealings, orders its ambassador to get Russia to sign a military alliance pact at any cost. Too late. Stalin informs Hitler directly (through telegram) that he will accept Ribbentrops arrival for the signing of a Soviet- German non-aggression pact.
August 22, 1939: Due to Stalin's promise of neutrality, equipped with new confidence, Hitler lectures his staff on the importance of going to war, attacking brutally, and its economic/political justification. He contemplates invading Poland six days ahead of schedule. Britain responds to news of Ribbentrop meeting with Stalin by reiterating support of Poland.
August 23, 1939: Non-Aggression pact signed between Germany and the Soviet Union. If Germany were to invade Poland, then the Soviet Union would not interfere. Britain reacts with a call to intermediate mobilization of its civil and military forces.
August 25, 1939: Hitler meets with British Ambassador Henderson. Hitler makes hollow offer of peace with Britain, in an effort to "buy" Britain's neutrality as it did the Soviet's. German troops begin movement towards Poland.
August 26, 1939: The day that Germany plans to invade Poland, Britain and Poland sign the mutual assistance Anglo-Polish pact. Mussolini fears British and French entrance into a war. He tells Hitler that Italy is not ready to go to war. A heavy blow to Hitler's plans, but it is the Anglo-Polish pact that puts a temporary hold on Hitler's plans.
August 27, 1939: Recovering from the set backs of the prior day, Hitler requests other support of Mussolini in the instance of military action. Swedish envoy delivers to Chamberlain a secret list of peace criteria from Hitler. It is different from the official proposal sent through ambassador Henderson. The former, peaceful terms after Hitler deals with Poland. The latter more like the Czech arrangement of Britain granting apportionment before battle.
August 28, 1939: Troops pour through Berlin on the way to the east. Britain and Germany continue to scramble for a peaceful understanding between them. Despite their own overtures of peace to Germany, Britain stands resolute in its military support of Poland and Polish political wishes. Hitler still doesn't believe them.
August 29, 1939: Germany to Britain, in the Reich's attempt at peace ". . . it could not be at the price of a renunciation of vital German interests." For the first time, Hitler's demands where in actual writing; return of Danzig, the Corridor, and the safeguarding of Germans in Poland. Hitler repeats threat of war due to "Polish aggression."
August 30, 1939: Last minute diplomatic scurrying by the East and West to prevent war. Britain eager to hear Germany's proposal for a peaceful settlement to the Polish crisis. Britain finally gets Poles and Germans to direct negotiations.
August 31, 1939: The final hours; final pressure for Poland to to German pressure; final time for Britain to acquiesce to German trickery, final plea from Mussolini to Hitler to wait, final chance for peace. All efforts were deceptive because all along the next day would by "Y-day" for the inaction of operation "White." 1,500,000 German troops move into position and await orders. Hitler creates the desired provocation, code name "Canned Goods" - At 12:00 noon, German troops masquerading as Polish invade a German Radio Station. Concentration inmates were killed and left as "casualties" of action. Hitler had is provocation for war.
September 1, 1939: GERMANY INVADES POLAND. On that day 395,950 Jews lived in Warsaw, Poland's capital. WORLD WAR II begins. The Holocaust rises in severity.
September 2, 1939: Hitler finally fires a shot and begins heavy bombing attack of several Polish cities.
September 3, 1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany.
September 3, 1939: SS executes 26 Jews in the Polish frontier town, Wieruszow. Included Israel Lewi, Abraham Lefkowitz, Moseh Mozes and Usiel Baumatz.
September 4, 1939: In air raid, over a thousand Jews killed amongst citizens of Polish town, Sulejow. Entire Goldblum family wiped out.
September 4, 1939: 180 Jews were shot in the city of Czestochowa. Refusing to burn the Torah. Germans burn rabbi Abrtaham Mordechai.
September 5, 1939: Germans try to set fire to predominantly Jewish section of Polish town, Sulejow. Six Jews die in flames, five shot while fleeing.
September 5, 1939: Germany asks Russia to invade Poland. Molotov replies that they would "at a suitable time."
September 6, 1939: Piotrkow; the Jewish quarter is set on fire. People fleeing are gunned down by Nazis.
September 7, 1939: Polish air force is now completely destroyed. Germany begins plans to move troops to the West (French Border.) Despite sworn support to Poland, France declines to attack or militarily engage Germany.
September 8, 1939: Bedzin, Poland; 200 Jews lodged into their synagogue, which was then set on fire. Jews in Germany ordered to mark all business with a Star of David.
September 10, 1939: After ordering 50 Jews to repair a bridge, General Halder shoots them all in their synagogue.
September 12, 1939: Pilica, Poland; 32 Jews taken away in trucks, shot dead and left in woods.
September 13, 1939: Mielec, Poland; 35 Jews burned alive at the slaughterhouse, 20 more burned alive in their synagogue.
September 14, 1939: Jewish New Year. Przemsysl, Poland 43 Jews taken, forced to do labor and then shot to death. Asscheer Gitter among the dead.
September 14, 1939: Order No.7 of German Civilian Administration transfers all Jewish industrial and commercial enterprises in Poland to "Aryan' hands.
September 17, 1939: Soviet forces cross the Polish frontier and move towards central Poland.
September 21, 1939: Conference led by Heydrich, Chief of the Reich Central Security Office, held in Berlin discussing long-term future of Polish Jewry. States that there is an ‘ultimate aim.' Calls for concentration of Jews in cities, and the formation of ghettos.
September 23, 1939: Rosh Hashanah, Jewish Day of Atonement; all over Poland the Jews are persecuted by the new Nazi order.
September 27, 1939: Warsaw finally capitulates to Germany after a month of bloody resistance.
September 28, 1939: Germany and Russia partition Poland. Sudden mass expulsion of Jews. Thousands robbed, hundreds murdered.
October 7, 1939: Hitler gives Himmler a new position. Head of the R.K.F.D.V., an organization responsible for the deportation of Poles and Jews from Polish provinces.
October 8, 1939: Ghetto ordered to be formed in Piotrkow, Poland. The first of Heydrich's plan.
October 9, 1939: Himmler declares that 550,000 Jews living in Polish provinces should be relocated.
October 17, 1939: A thousand Jews deported form Moravska Ostrava, of the former Czechoslovakia, and sent to Lublin region of Poland. There, they are forced to build themselves a labor camp. Adolf Eichmann, now in charge of ‘Jewish resettlement", greets the train.
October 17, 1939: Polish-German frontier finally fixed. At meeting, Hitler makes clear that the policy would be to cleanse Poland's towns of Jews, Poles and intelligentsia from all lands falling within the Gerneralgouvernement. Implementation was put in the hands of Henreich Himmler and his SS.
October 24, 1940: First order given, ( in the small town of Wiclawek), that Jews must wear a yellow triangle.
October 26, 1939: Military government is abolished in Poland. Generalgouvernment taken over by Hans Frank. His speech mentions that " there will be no room for . . . Jewish exploiters in a territory under German sovereignty."
October 30, 1939: Himmler instructs to have about a million people transported from the Generalgouverenment. Half Jews, half Poles.
November 7, 1939: German's begin expelling Jews from Western Poland. Jews in Sierpc are ordered to wear a yellow patch on which is written "JUDE".
November 9, 1939: 500 Jewish families exported from Lublin.
November 11, 1939: As punishment for reprisals to Polish/German aggression, three boys from Zielonka Poland are taken to the nearby woods and shot.
November 12, 1939: Heydrich, Chief of German Secret Security, orders Jews cleared from portions of annexed Poland that now fall under Greater Germany.
November 16, 1939: Lodz, order given that all Jews must wear a Star of David.
November 18, 1939: Cracow, order given that all Jews must wear a Star of David.
November 20, 1939: Generalgouvernement blocks all bank accounts held by Jews. Limiting them to $30 per month in withdrawals.
November 22, 1939: Warsaw, Poland; As punishment for a Jew killing a Polish officer, all 53 male inhabitants of his building were summarily shot.
November 23, 1939: Frank orders that " All Jews and Jewesses within the Government-General who are over ten years of age are required to wear . . . the Star of David."
November 28, 1939: Jews ordered to set up Jewish Councils in every Jewish community in the General Government of Germany. Heydrich instructs the deportation of 80,000 Jews and Poles should be carried out by December 17 (coinciding with the date of the new census}.
November 29, 1939: Heydrich comments on the first stages of the Final Solution, "The factor determining the pace of the evacuation is the Evacuation Plan."
December 1, 1939: Final deportation of Jews form Poland to Soviet Union. 1800 Jews set off marching from Hrubieszow, more than 1,400 were killed on December 4.
December 11, 1939: All Jews living within General Government of Germany were held liable for two years of forced labor.
December 13, 1939: Hans Frank issues order of the establishment of Jewish councils in Polish Jewish communities over 10,000. Jews referred to as ‘Judenrat.'
December 16, 1939: Girls in Lodz were seized to clean a latrine using their own shirts. When done, the Nazis wrapped the woman's faces with their shirts. By this time Jewish population of Warsaw and Lotz has risen to over 1,000,000.
December 19, 1939: Heydrich officially charged with centralizing the implementation of his deportation plans.
December 21, 1939: Heydrich places Adolf Eichmann as "special agent" of the RSHA. Up to then his deportation trains, accompanied with severe brutality, were already rolling.
December 30, 1939: 1,210 Jews board the river boat Uranus, looking to be transported to Palestine.